Thursday, September 3, 2020

Race Based Jury Nullification Essay Example for Free

Race Based Jury Nullification Essay Jury invalidation can by and large be named as the demonstration by a jury who despite the fact that is persuaded that a litigant is liable of the charges the individual in question is blamed for, chooses to give out or vindicate the person in question of the charges for the jury’s own reasons (Brandy R. 2006). Jury invalidation or so far as that is concerned can be characterized as a procedure whereby the jury(s) invalidates â€Å"unfair laws by pronouncing liable litigants not guilty†. Then again race based jury invalidation includes the procedure of a jury absolving an individual dependent on their race. This sort of cases is generally found in homogenous situations where the assorted variety of the jury is nil or practically nothing. Prior cases that incorporate runaway slave laws just as the current day cases like police shootings show that race based invalidation is as yet an advanced court issue. The invalidation procedure as a rule happens if a criminal preliminary chooses not to convict a respondent disregarding full evidence of blame because of the conviction and view by members of the jury that the law is out of line or at specific occasions that there is a shamefully utilization of the said law. The premise of the invalidation can be stated, in this manner, to be â€Å"the unjustness of the law†, the utilization of a similar law based on race of a gathering. Furthermore there are occurrences where cases that include the critically ill people in the general public are regularly given mercy by the legal hearers, when they take tranquilizes because of their condition. The issue regularly isn't just about invalidation as such however on occasion is based and as such has brought a great deal o banter on its embodiment considering the law just as morals. In this paper, I will talk about the issue of race based jury invalidation, its impediments just as its benefits. At long last I will assess the pertinence of race based jury invalidation in our current day society. Race based jury invalidation Race based jury invalidation includes the procedure of a jury purposely vindicating a litigant dependent on their race and with the full information that the respondent is liable. There are experimental investigations, which have demonstrated that around 3 to 4 percent of jury criminal path have been associated with jury invalidation. The quandary that the circumstance presents is overpowering, taking into account that there exists zero chance to stop the procedure of jury invalidation as members of the jury and are never requested or compelled to convict respondents and furthermore there is additionally no statement in law that makes it culpable for the legal hearer to absolve somebody. The overlying rule capacity of the jury is that it should finish the law, if essential through the acknowledgment of basics of support that navigates past the composed traditions that must be adhered to and not to â€Å"nullify† the guidelines given by the adjudicator. The point of convergence of reference when the legal hearers give the â€Å"not guilty† decision and in the process is the issue of uncalled for nature of the law. Upsides and downsides Depending on which side of the discussion you are on, this issue has both the terrible and the great side. There are different reasons why race based jury invalidation has experienced reactions even by its impassioned supporters. One, the case can be utilized for greater part cases, that is in examples where the jury comprises generally of people from a similar race can viably clear one of their â€Å"own† (respondent from a similar race). For example, a to a great extent comprised dark jury would free a dark American even extreme she or he has carried out a serious wrongdoing. Subsequently considering the law, when a hazardous individual is vindicated based on their race sets an awful priority (Jemal, 1997). There are examples when white legal hearers have vindicated individual whites through the procedure of jury invalidation while even with it the said respondents really occupied with a lawlessness that either hurt dark or earthy colored individuals in America. There are likewise examples when dark members of the jury have liberated individual blacks based on their races while they carried out either a racial demonstration or a serious wrongdoing. This has not helped the simply course of the fair treatment, blacks, whites just as different races have occupied with the race based jury invalidation, something that doesn't predict well for rules of the law. The nature with which the democratic is ordinarily done by the members of the jury is generally that of still, small voice, to a degree this is a complete lack of regard if not maltreatment of the laws of this land. At the point when somebody who is as far as anyone knows blameworthy is cleared, this is commensurate to invalidation of the very law. They should ensure and on whose premise the jury even appeared. Jury invalidation can possibly turn an in any case reasonable and firm society or state into some unfriendly, incongruous or even lead to common difficulty. This is on the grounds that when genuine acts are submitted, and decisions depend on races, the individual races may pack facing one another. It is by all accounts an annihilation procedure notwithstanding the law that ought to be the gatekeeper and defender of all. The regularly end drawn is typically that invalidation is a vital piece of intensity, which is fundamental for the balanced governance of the legal framework. Jury invalidation has and will keep on assuming a double job throughout the entire existence of our nation. There are sure occurrences in our history that jury invalidation has end up being a helpful instrument. For example, in those cases that included subjection or differential arraignment at specific occurrences let bigot to go unabated. There is the likelihood that over utilization of this force along with other genuine or envisioned dangers that it have would be colossal if everybody somehow managed to comprehend and know about it. Be that as it may, its nonattendance would put and vest a lot of intensity with the official and without a doubt every other person comprehends the outcomes of inordinate uneven force practiced by the legislature versus the intensity of the regular residents. End Overall, the race based jury invalidation has been, still is and would consistently be an exceptionally begging to be proven wrong theme, regardless of whether one bolsters it or the person in question is against it. In every single contention set forward by anybody in the general public possibly in support of jury invalidation process, there are solid, legitimate sentiments and realities on the side of the different particular reasons that can't simply be wished away. Having assessed the circumstance, and with a basic examination of the premise of the law of our extraordinary nation, I reached a resolution that with due regard the great job the legal hearers have done as such far, the race based jury invalidation ought not be led or if nothing else cordoned by the legal hearers. This doesn't imply that I am in any case contradicting or dismissing the entire thought of jury invalidation. Be that as it may, on the off chance that the component of race turns out to be separated of the entire condition, at that point I firmly require its boycott. As I would see it and comprehension of our history I accept jury invalidation dependent on a defendant’s race doesn't advance solidarity inside networks at any level. Considering the enormous endeavors our nation has made towards an agreeable network and with the exertion different characters have placed in teaching and sharpening individuals on how negative race based thoughts has and can be. I accept the entire procedure is biased and fundamentally racial to the individuals in our general public. This doesn't in any capacity imply that people ought to be embarrassed about their races and advances the qualities and goals they represent, however when a litigant is seen as blameworthy or guiltless based on the law by the legal hearers dependent on their race alone then there is an issue. Either the issue is with the law or our general public yet none of us needs both of these two situations. The reason for any juror’s choice ought to be realities, data just as proof that they get all through the path. Members of the jury partialities be it racial or in any case ought to be left at their entryway ventures before they get into the boulevards take off alone the courts. Reference: Cognac Rivera, 2006, Race based jury invalidation. Related Content Cato Books 1999: Jurors Should Know Their Rights: A chronicled take a gander at jury autonomy Jemal, 1997, Race Based Jury Nullification: A Path To Equality! http://www. geocities. com/athens/olympus/1320/invalidation. htm Scheflin, Alan W. , (1999) California Bar Journal, Point Counter Point Is it ever legitimate for juries to disregard or rethink the law? , Retrieved September 28, 2007 from http://www. calbar. ca. gov/calbar/2cbj/99mar/page14-1. htm

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Why Writing a Good Statement of Thesis Matters

Why Writing a Good Statement of Thesis MattersA good thesis statement is more than a mere opening sentence. It is a statement that contains two main parts - the reason for the idea, and an explanation of what the idea means. Many students look at their thesis statement as the beginning of a long essay and assume that they are done writing by the time they get to the final paragraph. However, a poorly written thesis statement will leave your reader feeling frustrated or even annoyed.A good thesis statement does not have to be complex, but it does need to communicate the idea clearly. It should be composed in an easy-to-read format that will help readers understand what you are trying to say. A thesis statement should have a unique beginning, middle, and end. The most important part of the statement is the first sentence, which will give your reader a basic introduction to your ideas. It is advisable to use the first word of the reader's question as the title of your statement, or use it as the basis for the title of your thesis.An example: The term 'food' is used many times in the body of the thesis. What are the meanings of the words? Why is this the case? What information can I gain from this title? The title has been given its own paragraph, so that the reader can view it as a link to a given information source in the body of the thesis.The first sentence should contain a main reason or rationale for the idea. The reason should be used often and in many different ways throughout the statement. Once again, the main reason is a part of the title of the statement. This reason is used to give the reader a description of the reason for the idea. If the thesis statement was read in a sentence, the reason would take up one line, the idea would take up another line, and the opening paragraph would take up another line.The title of the thesis statement does not matter, it is only used as a means of linking the opening paragraph with the body of the thesis. Therefore, it is important to avoid excessive or cliche titles such as 'Freedom.' Instead, it is more sensible to go with a more meaningful title that really expresses your thoughts on the topic, such as 'The Freedom of the Mind'The Freedom of Thought.'The second part of the statement should also contain a reason or rationale. The reason is used in more than one way in the body of the thesis. It is used as the body of the thesis to provide a greater explanation of the idea. Often times the reason is very short and states the main point or reason in a very short manner. However, when a person looks closely at their thesis statement, it is likely that the reason is only used in one way.In other words, the reason can be used in several ways to help the reader to think about the idea. When writing a thesis statement, keep in mind that it is a learning tool and should not be used simply to make a point. Try to use your reasons in ways that will make the reader think about the concept in a positive manner, rather than a negative manner.The third part of the thesis statement should be a description of the ideas expressed in the thesis. If the reason is short, a short description of the idea can be used in place of the main reason. However, if the reason is lengthy and explains the whole idea in detail, the description should be used in place of the main reason.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Website Evaluation Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Site Evaluation - Case Study Example Advair is a result of the well known global GSK. It has a richly structured site that fixates on their item. Advair cases to give answer for asthma patients through its Advair Diskus and it expands on this case through a proficient clarification of the employments of the item and a portrayal of benefits of the medication considering the specialists. Consumer loyalty and solace is at the center of present day showcasing hypothesis and this has been effectively tended to through online request offices consequently shielding the client from a physical dare to the pharmaceutical stores in scan for the item. Advair site utilizes the promoting blend using practically all the P's with an uncommon thoughtfulness regarding the item as it gives a point by point clarification of the utilization of the item, its benefits and a portrayal of how it helps the asthma patients. So as to profitably the gravity of the subject that is asthma has been quickly featured to empower the client into investigating more prominent subtleties and inspiring him/her to purchase the item. Trust building is the most critical element of operational promoting and in such manner an efficacious utilization of the famous brand name, GSK, has been made. GSK being one of the goliaths in the pharmaceutical business worldwide the name itself offers validity to the customers. A showcase of the logo at the base of the site plainly demonstrates the marking system of the organization, and meanwhile would manufacture the customers trust and would urge him to test the medication by uprightness of the created brand name. Moreover the site consolidates the division arrangement by giving a rundown of qualification controls and suggesting a variety of systems as for the age of the patient. To gather the survey like numerous other corporate mammoths GSK has productively promoted its medication through its site and its arrangements guarantee to give Advair an upper hand in the business. The second site that was picked with the end goal of study was MERCK's Dissimilar to Advair, Singulair needs skill and it neglects to coordinate an assortment of promoting devices. The site missed the mark in focusing on the item which is at the focal point of the promoting blend, a portrayal of the item and an insight about its utilization appear to be the significant viewpoints that are missing, and neither does it layout the seriousness of asthma, as Advair. Notwithstanding of the obliviousness in these divisions various positive attributes can be distinguished that make up for the downsides in the showcasing blend. A specific marking technique has been received and a more prominent utilization of the acclaimed brand name MERCK has been made when contrasted with Advair. The presentation of the logo at the highest point of the site fabricates the medication's respectability in the brains of the client from the earliest starting point and induces him/her to foresee a high item quality. An obvious division has been done and it features the way that it targets individuals from all age bunches thusly plotting the way that asthma can assault anybody. The depiction of th

Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Intern Recruiting Of Business Undergrads Starts Earlier Earlier

Intern Recruiting Of Business Undergrads Starts Earlier Earlier by: Alison Damast on October 29, 2015 | 1 Comment Comments 2,605 Views October 29, 2015Every winter like clockwork, a group of 100 McIntire School of Commerce students from the University of Virginia has headed down to New York in business attire to hobnob and network with alums and recruiters from the leading banks and financial firms. The students’ whirlwind trip over winter break, called the finance trek, was a precursor to the internship recruiting that began in full force when students returned to school in January.This year the school’s career services office made the difficult decision to cancel that trip for the first time in 20 years, said Tom Fitch, McIntire’s associate dean of career services and employer relations. The timing no longer made sense, given that recruiters from the bulge bracket banks hit campus this fall in early September for information sessions and meet and greets. Resume deadlines followed shortly thereafter, with interviews for the highly sought-after financial analyst banking internships slated to start Oct. 26â€Å"This is the year where the banks as a whole made a commitment to focus on the fall and the schools have become more accommodating,† Fitch said. â€Å"It really would have been too late to do the trek in January and February. We are looking at revamping the trek for the future.†RECRUITER HITTING UNDERGRAD BUSINESS SCHOOLS IN FULL FORCERecruiting activity is brisk to say the least this fall on business school campuses, as recruiters hit undergraduate business schools in full force, particularly for internship recruiting. Most career services officers said they expect internship hiring to be the same, if not better, than last year, given the strong volume of campus visit and internship job postings. Recruiters from the accounting, banking and even the consulting sectors are swarming the campuses, in such high volume i n some instances that career services officers have had to give up their offices to make room for interview spaces. The companies are recruiting for full-time positions, but most have their eye on snagging the top talent as early as possible from the junior class, career services officers at half a dozen leading undergraduate business programs said.The accelerated timeline of internship recruiting on undergraduate business school campuses, particularly in the financial services industry, has thrown a wrench into how business schools have approached internship recruiting, which many schools are grappling with for the first time this fall. For years, business schools relied on tried and true formulas that allowed them to prepare students in time for the whirlwind rounds of internship deadlines and interviews that used to take place in the winter and early spring. At nearly all of the top undergraduate business programs now, that schedule no longer holds true, with schools being forced to adjust to the new reality.â€Å"The intensity of the recruiting and how early it is just continues to reinforce that it is more than a trend now,† said Michael Roberts, assistant dean and director of the Career Center at Brigham Young University’s Marriott School of Management. â€Å"It is what companies are doing for internships. It is critical to get the students prepared because everything now is so accelerated.†IF ITS SEPTEMBER, ITS TIME TO START RECRUITINGSchools have had to adjust in a number of ways, from pushing up the dates and timeframes of the finance treks to cities like New York and San Francisco, holding summer webinars to prepare students for the wave of recruiters they’ll the first few weeks of school and figuring out how to accommodate students who choose to study abroad their fall semester of junior year. Colleges and universities where BBAs start taking their business classes their junior year are finding the new timeline the most c hallenging because they don’t have adequate time to prepare students in and outside the classroom, say career services officersAt the Marriott School, which has a two-year undergraduate business program that begins junior year, recruiting starts the last week of September, said the Marriott School’s Roberts. The school’s Finance Society, a professional student club, hosted about 25 information sessions in September alone, with visits from Goldman Sachs, Capital One and J.P. Morgan, according to the club’s website.To better prepare future students come junior year, the career services office started a formal partnership this year with 12 of the school’s professional student clubs. The club’s leaders (most of whom are seniors) and the career services team meet once a month in the dean’s office to strategize on how to prepare the pre-management students, particularly sophomores, on the professional development front. The career center al so created a new student role at the career center, director of brand management, where a senior business major is tasked with serving as a liaison between the presidents of the school clubs and the career office staff. Page 1 of 212 »

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Questions On Assessing Student Learning - 978 Words

edTPA Task 3: What You Think About It is not uncommon to imagine a sheet of paper with a list of questions and a score next to them when we think about assessment. Usually, assessments or tests are viewed as methods to quantify what students have learned so that the values can be recorded in a gradebook, but that is not the only purpose of assessments. In fact, assessments can serve for much more in the learning process if developed properly. As required to pass the edTPA, we are to demonstrate than we can use assessments to plan, instruct, and measure student learning, and in order to do that, we must know what to think about when assessing student learning. Through this essay we will discuss the key components that we need to think about when assessing student learning as proposed by Task 3 in the edTPA. The first component in assessing student learning is thinking about the instrument that will be used to gather evidence and make sense of what students have learned and understand about their learning progress. Asse ssment instruments vary in form and include essays to synthesize knowledge, presentations, test worksheets etc., but any assessments must be aligned to measure learning targets and state standards at the appropriate levels of understanding. In many cases, as seen in Figure 1, teachers make sense of the evidence they collect from assessments by making tables and graphs that represent the quantitative measure of student knowledge before and after instruction.Show MoreRelatedEvaluation Of An Effective Assessment Strategies For Students With Special Needs Essay1179 Words   |  5 PagesReport A: 1. Questionings: Assessing literacy in primary school (Running Records) Ontological questions Epistemological questions Technical questions What are the most important ideas that I’ve read to help shape the thinking of assessment? If I know there are students in my classroom who don’t preform to their best ability under test conditions, how can I accommodate these students? What is an effective assessment strategy to use to maintain a positive learning environment? - Why does myRead MoreSoftware to Support Assessment804 Words   |  3 Pagesof software available to help with student assessments; which are important for teachers to understand how the students are learning. Using software to complete student assessments allows students the opportunity to engage themselves in the assessment (Shelly, G, Gunter, G, and Gunter, R (2012). Some software used to assess students is Google Forms, Socrative, and electronic surveys such as survey monkey; technology plays an important role in assessing students. Teachers can use technology to helpRead MoreInterviewing And Conferencing As An Assessment819 Words   |  4 Pagesis a strategy employed by teachers, to evaluate the student’s response to learning. The teacher gathers information while interpreting the evidence in trying to understand and make judgments about the student learning. In presenting assessment to the students, the student has verbalized their knowledge on what they have just learned, organize their thoughts and present it out in the summary. The need for assessing the student aims at understanding what they learned in the classroom and using the gatheredRead MoreEvaluation And Explain The Four Stages Of The Assessment Process1486 Words   |  6 Pagesof the learning process. Assessments not only evaluates the students’, but also the teacher since they are able to evaluate their own techniques and skills. The first thing addressed in the reading is an explanation of the difference between an â€Å"evalu ation† and an â€Å"assessment†. Tenbrink (2015) describes the four stages of the evaluation process. The first step in the evaluation process is the initial preparation for the assessment. This is usually what led you to ant to evaluate that student in theRead MoreRole of Teacher1175 Words   |  5 PagesThere are 5 stages to the teaching Learning Cycle. Enabling Learning Planning Learning Assessing Learning Quality assurance amp; evaluation Identifying Learning The learning cycle can start and finish anywhere on the cycle. There is no start and finish point. Identifying needs Before the students start the course a lot of pre assessment work can be completed, this can take the form of application forms and / or a pre course interview. The student needs can be clearly identified toRead MoreIdentify the Different Types and Different Methods of Assessment Used in Teaching.1339 Words   |  6 Pagesgroup of learners ,at our first session I often find that using Neil Flemings VAK/VARK model tests are a great way to get learners talking and appreciating their varied learning styles. The variations on these tests have been used since 1987 and claim that learners can use the model to identify their preferred style of learning and be able to focus on what brings them most benefits. Visual learners- benefit from visual aids, diagrams, handouts Auditory learners – benefit from listening to recordingsRead MoreAssessments Are Essential Within Education989 Words   |  4 Pagesis to measure students’ progression. They provide evidence of students’ prior knowledge, thinking, and understanding and should be created to meet the needs of every student because every student is different and learns differently, as well as at a different pace. Assessments should reflect the objectives of the lesson being taught and the frequency of those assessments should be considered. Assessments can also help teachers to improve student learning. How assessments affect students should alsoRead MoreMethods in Performing Assessment962 Words   |  4 Pagesa sample of the abilities that are required in the curriculum† (Ian Reece, 2007, teaching, training and learning) Fairness: Fairness censures that everyone has an equal chance of getting a good assessment. â€Å"All learners are entitled to a fair assessment and should be given the best opportunity to demonstrate their ability† (Ann Gravels, 2008, preparing to teach in the lifelong learning sector) Authenticity: The work produced by learner in practical life. Currency: The work is still relevantRead MoreEssay about Princilples of Assessment Unit 12 Pttls1553 Words   |  7 PagesJulie Capon Unit 012 Principles of assessment in lifelong learning The types of assessment a trainer will use in lifelong learning include initial, diagnostic, independent assessment, formative, summative, internal, external, formal and informal assessment. â€Å"Assessment is a way to find out if learning has taken place.† Tummons (2007: p5) Gravells (2011:p91), describes the assessment cycle in the following terms; â€Å"the initial assessment, assessment planning, assessment activity, assessment decisionRead MoreBackward Design, a planning guide1555 Words   |  7 Pagesevidence of learning (performances) called for by the standard and the teaching needed to equip students to perform†(Wiggins and McTighe, 2000, page 8). There are two key ideas in Backward Design: 1) Focus on teaching and assessing for understanding and transfer, and 2) Design curriculum â€Å"backward† from those ends. It aims to provide a framework to guide curriculum, assessment and instruction. The backward design framework is based on the following seven key tenets: 1. Learning is enhanced

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The History of Hip Hop Music and Its Transition to Popular...

Hip hop has multiple branches of style and is a culture of these. This essay will examine Hip Hop from the point of view of the following three popular music scholars, Johnson, Jeffries and Smitherman. It will delve deeper into their understanding of what hip hop is and its relation to the different people that identify with its message and contents. It will also identify the history of Hip hop and its transition into popular music. In particular this essay will focus on what hip hop represents in the black community and how it can be used as a social movement against inequalities faced by them. This will then open up the discussion for the how this has influenced society, and the impact it has had in terms of race issues which hip hop†¦show more content†¦Hip hop generally has songs which African Americans can relate to. Although this can be argued, Jeffries’ research into hip hop culture reveals, blacks associate hip hop with â€Å"understanding themselves and othe r black people†. (Jeffries.2011; 29). Jeffries makes a strong point when he compares the power of hip hop artist today being more influential than civil rights heroes. He quotes Nas (famous rapper) as saying â€Å"Some of my niggas in the streets don’t know who Medgar Evers was . . . they know who Nas is† (quoted in Reid 2008). This helped to highlight that today’s generation identifies more strongly with hip hop and views it as not just music but as a sub culture of who they are. This shows that Hip hop is a multi-facet media and is something that can be easily identified with, easily associated with and therefore relatable. Smitherman views hip hop as a means to express pain and the violence the artists have dealt with. He notes that this ‘thug life’ is the key to being authentic, â€Å"giving them legitimate, productive careers† (Smitherman.1997; 21). He cites that Hip hop examines the struggles in a black community that America has abandoned, and demonstrates the evolution of the black culture. In doing so hip hop has allowed both insiders and outsiders to understand and associate with this struggle. (Smitherman.1997; 22). Smitherman quotes Chuck D ofShow MoreRelatedThe Mafia s Influence On Hip Hop1603 Words   |  7 PagesThe Mafia’s influence on Hip-Hop In Rap, there is a unique culture, history, social impact and influence on society. Hip-Hop/Rap is one of the most popular genre of music. It has helped shape the pop culture into what it is today. What is popular culture? The ideas, activities or products, which are popular among the general mass. In today’s pop culture, one subject that is at the top of the list is hip-hop/rap. Hip-Hop music highlights verses consisting of slang and catchy phrases, which someRead MoreThe Relationship Between Politics And Hip Hop Music Essay1570 Words   |  7 PagesRap and Rebellion: The Relationship Between Politics and Hip-Hop Music The rap subculture is widely agreed to have been established in the Bronx, New York during the 1970’s. At a time when block parties became popular, especially among African-American youths, hip-hop music was a means of expressing opinions and values and as a new source of communication. At these gatherings, DJs would play percussive breaks from popular songs, often on two turntables to enable them to extend these breaks. ThisRead MoreSomething for Nothing: The Art of Rap1032 Words   |  5 Pagesof Hip-Hop has never been as great as it is in this day and age. Often dismissed by a majority of America as simply a fad, hip hop has become a global phenomenon and has arguably been the most popular form of music for the past three decades. Hip-Hop has influenced art, language, fashion, culture, and sports. This music has been used to teach elementary level children, it has been taught in undergraduate universities and serves as a bridge for hundreds of philanthropies. The influenc e of Hip-HopRead MoreA Brief Note On Hip Rap And Hip Hop And Rap Industry830 Words   |  4 Pages Hip Hop In Bollywood Living in the 21st century, one is highly exposed to many different cultures. Due to this high exposure lot of artists gain the ability to diversify their music. Yo Yo Honey Singh, is a prime example of an artist who used the high exposure to introduce a new and exciting style of music to the Bollywood industry. Bollywood being the largest movie producing industry in the world, is known for its native and colorful music. Yo Yo Honey Singh being an Indian rapper and hip hopRead MoreThe Evolution Of Music Throughout History934 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout history, music has and will probably always be at the heart of almost every culture. The evolution of music can be compared right along with the evolution of man and the beliefs in his era. This idea is very apparent in the articles â€Å"Minstrelsy†, â€Å"Johnny Rebel and the Cajun Roots of Right-Wing Rock†, and â€Å"Black Women and Black Men in Hip Hop Music: Misogyny, Violence and the Negotiation of (White-Ow ned) Space.† In â€Å"Minstrelsy† from â€Å"Encyclopedia of American Studies† it explains partRead MoreHip Hop Wars By Tricia Rose3817 Words   |  16 PagesWhen Tricia Rose speaks to the concept of â€Å"hip hop wars† in her writing, she is referring to a broad range of different conflicts that are taking place in all areas of hip hop. In the introduction to her book, she begins to explain her multitude of concerns surrounding certain topics in hip hop. She begins by saying that the most financially successful hip hop has become a way of caricaturing â€Å"black gangstas, pimps and hoes† (p. 1). She goes on to explain that homophobia, hypersexism, antisocialRead MoreEssay about Hip Hop1101 Words   |  5 PagesHip-hop is known as a culture movement. Hip-hop is a pleasing art form, formed by African-Americans and Latinos in the late seventies. Its formation derives from a young generation of African-Americans in South Bronx, New York. They created a beautiful, c omplimentary expression of melody, skill and dance from an environment of poverty. Ever since it has encouraged people from all across the world. Hip-hop is discussed as an art form and not just flowing, it typically is meant to include the fourRead MoreEssay on Hip Hip1788 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction Hip hop as a ding an sich is marked by some confusion. Consider the name; is it quot;hip hop,quot; quot;hip-hopquot; or quot;hiphopquot;? You will see all three used in titles in this bibliography. Hip hop is, at the same time, a cultural phenomenon that developed in the late 70s in the projects in Brooklyn and the Bronx, and a musical style from that phenomenon. Nevertheless, hip hop has become a pervasive element of popular culture, as witnessed by this bibliography. There are hip hopRead MoreA Brief Note On Hip Rap Culture And Hip Hop1862 Words   |  8 PagesResearch Paper Hip Hop Culture â€Å"Hip-hop gave a generation a common ground that didn t require either race to lose anything; everyone gained.† -Jay-Z. I truly believe that the culture of hip hop really does have the power to bring people together. Hip hop is capable of bringing unity and even a sense of community amongst different people and different culture. The world is very diverse place filled with a mixture of various backgrounds, environments, beliefs, practices, etc., but Hip Hop can provideRead MoreRap Music And The Music Industry2018 Words   |  9 Pages Rap music led to more black professionals in the music industry. Rap can be traced back to its African roots. Before rap stories were told rhythmically over drums and instruments. This era was known as the golden age of rap. Rap did and has changed the face of music for the better. Old school flows were relatively basic and used only few syllables per bar. Simple rhythmic patterns, and basic rhyming techniques and rhyme schemes. There are different variations of flow, such as the syncopated

Childrens Dual Language

Question: Discuss about theChildrens Dual Language. Answer: Introduction Dual language in children is a concept that refers to the process of teaching children to communicate in two languages or more. In the childs early life usually between one and three years, the childs ability to learn can be compared to that of an adult because it is at this stage that they begin developing approaches to learning language among other domains. Research has found out that a good number of children speak other languages other than English at home. For the purposes of second language acquisition, researchers have stated that learning of the first language is quite critical. This because if a child is not is not dexterous in their first language, this is likely to affect their ability to learn a second language (Najafi, 2011). What Researchers have Examined (Hammer et al., 2014) while studying bilingualism in children found out that economic status of the childs family plays a great role in their ability to learn two languages. He found out that Children from low income background who join kindergarten with no skills to communicate in English are unlikely to catch up with their counter parts from well of families. Research conducted by different researchers has considersdered different factors in their research on dual language development in children (Hammer et al., 2014) found out that a number of factors play a role in assessing a childs dual language ability. They considered childs mastery of their first language vocabulary, Childs mastery of their second language, as well as the childs mastery and ability to communicate in both languages. Acquisition of a second language at an early age is often referred to as early bilingualism. It is the opposite of late bilingualism which is the acquisition of a second language at a late age. Of great consideration is the context in which the childs acquires their second language. Here researchers have analyzed how different children acquire their second language by considering secondary or primary bilingualism. Primary bilingualism refers to the act of acquiring a second language through interaction with the people around you. This is particularly happens inform of unstructured communication among the people around the child. On the other hand secondary bilingualism happens in a formal context. This is whereby a child is specifically taught in order to acquire a second language. So researchers will take into consideration whether the child acquired the second language naturally or whether they were taught. Regarding the proficiency of a bilingual child, researchers have considered Receptive and Productive ability of the child. The difference between these two is the understanding and producing of the two languages. Receptive bilingualism means that a child can understand both languages but they are not able to produce the two languages on their own. On the other hand, productive ability refers to the ability of the child to understand and communicate in both languages. By putting these into consideration, the researcher is able to classify the child accordingly according to their level of competence. Researchers have also considered children from the new and the old communities. In this context, old communities in particularly country reefers to the people who have originated from the country, while on the other hand, new communities refer to the immigrants into a particular country. Dual language development abilities of these two communities are likely to be different. .immigrants may shift to their new countries without completely taking over the Grammatical system that exists in the grammar of native speakers (Collins, 2014) How they Conducted the Research Regarding the childs proficiency, they evaluated each bilingual child individually on the childs ability to express their ideas feelings, thoughts and wishes in both languages. They then rated the childs proficiency level on a linear scale. They conducted their research mostly through observation of the sample population within different contexts. They did their research within the home settings of the children m, within the larger societal setting as well as within the formal school settings. The Research involved sampling children from different economic backgrounds and gender. Findings After conducting thorough research, different researchers have come up with a wide range of findings. (Pena Halle, 2011) found out that children of the new bilingual type had had a grammatical gender loss as compared to the monolingual ones. Researchers have also found out that bilingualism in children brings a lot of advantages to these children as compared to their counterparts who have mastery of only one language. In particular, they have indentified bilingual students as having the ability of being more creative, possessing sharp problem solving skills and being able to observe tolerance towards different kinds of people. This was however, was the opposite with children who can speak only one language. Other researchers have found out that, both bilingual and monolingual and bilingual children display similar patterns in language acquisition despite the fact that bilingual children are not so much exposed to the two languages as are the monolingual children within the same setting. Researchers have also disputed the notion that a child cannot adequately learn two languages at the same time. Some people have always been of the opinion that a child is not in the capacity of learning two languages simultaneously without getting mixed up as to which words belong to which language, however, it has been argued that so long as people interacting with the child in a social context are using the two languages each at a particular time, the child will automatically learn the appropriate way of using each language within the course of time and be able to communicate effectively,. Parents also play an integral role in the childrens acquisition of more than one language. Precisely, if parents speak to their children using the two languages at different times, they are likely to make them acquire vocabularies in both languages. On the other hand, the language community has also been identified as playing a role in a childs dual language development. In this case, if they support the use of all the languages this is likely to have a positive impact on a childs multilingual capacity while on the other hand if one of the two languages is preferred by the wider community this is likely to hinder the childs dual language development. Additionally watching television in the second language has been identified as factor that has promoted the ability of children to become multilingual. However, this has been associated with deterioration of the childs use of the first language. Suggestions for Promoting Positive Dual Language Development in Children Based on research by different researchers, a number of lessons can be drowning from their findings in order to promote positive dual language development in children. The first suggestion is that parents and early childhood development should use the two languages appropriately. They are supposed to use each of the languages separately without mixing the two in single conversation .This is likely to enable the children make a distinction between the vocabularies that exist in each of the languages. Parents should also not discourage Dual language development in their children on the notion that it is likely to make them confused. Although this is not true, it could hinder the childs ability to lean a second language. This can also be achieved through engaging in communications with the children using the two languages. Parents can develop the culture of maintaining a communication flow between them and their children using different languages. This will not only encourage them to keep talking, but it will also make them acquire mastery of the languages. (Tabors, 2008) argued that teachers are tasked with the responsibility of introducing new and interesting words in all the classroom activity to enable learning. Childhood educators should therefore ensure that they break the classroom monotony which will speed up the learning process and ease the understanding of the use and meaning of the words. The children should also be allowed to interact with other children as well as adults to improve on their mastery of language. Conclusion In conclusion dual language capacity is quite important especially in the current times where knowing many languages has become the norm. Its clear that Researchers dealing with dual language development in children have those factors that they consider in their research. Such research should be objective and represent the wider picture. Parents, the society and childhood educators have roles to play in as far as promoting of dual language in children is concerned .Thy should therefore ensure that that play their roles sufficiently so that they can enhance learning among these children. References: Najafi, B. (2011). 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